Exploring the Perspective of HM’s on Medium of Instruction (MOI) at Schools:
Mandandeupur Municipality, Kavrepalanchok
Dr.Lok Bahadur Lopchan
Sypnosis of the study
Nepal has diverse landscapes in geography, demography, cultute and languages. This kind of diversity is reflects every intity of the society. It can be called the mirror of the state, face of the community should be represented.Now, Nepal is practising federal governing system which is the another name of people’s sovereingty.After implementation of federalization in Nepal, people rights, choice and voice are addressed with the constitutional provision and Acts, Rules and programs have been continued.
School level education is the foundation of human capital development. So every state bearer the accountability ensuring to provide qualitative compulsory and freed basic education. Nepal has signatory compel to follow international committements, covenants and international agreements.Later 2015, Nepal has transformed into new horizon of inclusive governance. Thus, compulsary and free educational rights is guarenteed and rights to get education in their mother tongue is ensured. The education acts and regulation has concluded the provision for the multingual medium in the classroom. Despite these provisions, community school are being English only medium which are replacing Nepali language as a medium in the classroom and mother tongue also shifted into Nepali from the every house.For conserve, preserve and develop the mother tongue, school should apply multiligual medium as a medium of instruction. In this study,the present status of MOI in the classroom, perceptions of all ther headteacher upon medium language and ways for the future are insisted in the research.
Mandandeurpur municipality is located nearly 55 kilometer far from Kathmandu city. This municipality is surrounding Sunkoshi rural municipality Sindhupalchok in the east, Banepa municipality in the west, So as Shankharapur municipality, Kathmandu and Changunarayan municipality Bhaktapur in the north and Panchkhal municipality Kavrepalanchok in the south. Not only geographically diverse this municipality, but also natural,cultural and others diversity is available here.Besides, beautiful city Nagarkot, as well as indrawati river, temples, Gumbas and cultural, linguistic diversities.
Municipality has formulated policies, acts, regulation and programs to ensure quality basic and secondary education. Creating Basic and secondary level teacher quota and distribution, raised salary of ECED facilitator, Model School building program, student learning achievement assessment, ICT based class for providing computer, Dash Board and establish digital library are significant steps for education sector of this municipality. And, English medium only at schools also enforcely implemented class 1-5 now whereas multiligual education policy adapted here. Obviously multilingual education and English only policy both following by municipality is contradiction in theory and practice which is not matching the national policy and local practice.
Exploring monolingual practice in the context of multilingual classroom at schools: Mandandeupur Municipality.
3.Objectives of the study
The major objective of this study are given follow:
- Exploring the status of HM’s pespectives of English/ mother tongue only as MOI.
- Identifying HM’s perpective of multilignual medim as MOI.
- Find out the HM’s perspectives of English is only for Math and Science as MOI.
- Drawing out the applicable ways for making multilingual medium in the classrooms as MOI.
- Literature review
After restoration democray 1991, Constitution of Nepal had ensured the language and cultural rights as fundamental rights of all Nepali people. Furthermore, people revolution of Nepal in 2062/63 the transformed the statesmanship king to president and interim constitution guaranteed the rights to get education in mother tongue basic level education. Constitution of Nepal 2072 declared the Federal Republic Nepal and three layers governing structures have been established . As well as in the article 31 and 32 of constitution of Nepal 2072, respectively right to education in mother tongue and right to preserve and develop all of the languages which are spoken in Nepal have ensured.
And this constitution has provided to province and local levels which are enlisted annexes of the constitution. So as Language commission has established since five years ago and commission prepared official language report which handed over to prime minister to implement all levels of governments. The recommendation has emphasized to implement mother tongue as official language and medium of instruction at school classrooms.
Language commission has conducted various orientation programs for implementation multilingual education at all of the school in this Mandandeupur Muncipality.This municipality has declared policy of multilingual and MLE education. Recently 11th assembly of municipality has aprroved the Act of local language, Act of Mandandeupur Academy and Act of Mandandeupur language and cultural museum act aslo, this task might be historical steps in the context of 753 local levels because there aren’t any other local levels that has formulated language act still now. Not only other local levels, there are no federal and provincial language acts. So, this municipality has done breakthrough the gap of language Acts all around the Nepal. Notably this municipality has also strarted the Tamang and Danuwar subject teaching at some schools where majorly those language speakers.
Local level based some studies have been completed for the uses of mother tongue as a medium instruction at school in the classroom. Ministry of education, Department of Education and Langauge commission studies are significant and authorized reports are available. Some of reports and conclusions are presented as follows:
Awasthi (2004) has recommended mother tongue should use as medium of instruction upto class three and then shift to Nepali language as a medium of instruction and English can be used medium instruction higher classes of secondary education from class 9 to 12 etc. He has suggested to teach Nepali and English language as second language or foreign language because of low achievement in language competency.
Department of Education (2014):Some Schools have been implementing mother tongue as medium of instruction, whereas some are teaching mother tongue as subject. But some schools have not yet started implementing MLE. Although MLE has been practiced in Nepal since time unknown it was technically and officially initiated at the national level in 2007 through two years long MLE Pilot program jointly implemented by the government of Nepal and the government of Finland.
Medium of Instruction and Language for Education (MILE) study by Ministry of Education and Australian Aid (2015) has sequenced the languages for using medium of instruction in education. In this study, oral medium of mother tongue and written both types have recommeded.
Phyak (2016) has recommended enhancing the awareness of the community to preserve and development the mother tongue. He used ethnographic study method and made the community and participants change after making discourse using mother tongue as medium of instruction in classrooms of schools.
Kandel (2014) finding is that community are in the dilemma of English medium or quality of education. The informants who involved, they have trust speaking English is quality itself which make capable to get job in the market. They were misguided by the marketization and English language. But they haven’t real knowledge of the mother tongue and it’s value in education as a medium of instruction. There is lack of sensitization them, mother tongue is like oxyzen for preserving cast, culture and indigeneous knowledge.
Lopchan (2019) has identified monolingual school are the killer of the mother languages. So as the study of Language commission more than 24 local levels on the topic of mother language use in medium instructions that clearly recommeds to use multilingual medium by replacing obsolete monolingual medium.
Naomi (2019) has found that 79 percent of teachers in Temal Municipality Kavre and 85 percent of teachers in Phidim Municipality Panchthar from selected three school each municipality have agreed that they are already ‘mostly’ using the mother tongue to teach students. The infograph is below:
Language Commission (2019) has studied feasibility of mother tongues as medium of instruction in education.In this briefs of the study covered 18 different languages which are Tamang, Sherpa, Gurung, Chepang, Newar, Maithali, Bhojpuri, Awadhi, Magar, Thami, Rana Tharu, Uranb, Doteli, Kumal, Done Danuwar, Bantawa, Tharu, Urdu, Limbu. The study has categorized in three dimension which are: a) School language mapping, b) Measuring the standard of mother tongue and c) Feasibility study of mother tongue use in education as medium language.The synosis of study report reveals the ground reality of the classroom, mother tongue status and linguistic map of school. In school mapping students, teachers and guardian mother tongue surveyed. Thus, how many language are spoken in a local level and languages are kept in serial with the majority to minority. And, in the study case studies conducted in three schools representing monolingual, bilingual and multilingual schools. The study reports recommended to use mother tongues as a medium of instruction where native speaker are in the classroom. The study report emphasizes mother tongue use as a medium of instruction upto class three. Regarding the study report, language commission handed over the five years official language report and five serius of annual reports to government of Nepal which recommended to use mother tongue as a medium of instruction. In the report, the local levels where the study have conducted are concluded. The official language related report of commission has suggested to use mother tongue as medium instruction with managing teacher, textbook, textmaterial by three tiers of government of Nepal. Specially, this report has made local goverments to be accountable for using mother tongues as official language in education.
Pradhan (2020) this study captures the role of simultaneity in social change to some extent, through the competing process of reproduction of enthnolinguistics capital in the subfield of minority language education and the broder field of education, much remains to be explored.
5.Theoritical Frame of the study
Languge can be learnt through two ways which are subject teaching and use the language as medium of instruction. Four language skills that listening, speaking, reading and writing are taught in subject teaching. Another way is that language use as medium of instruction to teach Math, Social, Science subjects using that language for developing cognition of children. The frame of the study is as follow:
|Perception of HM’s upon medium of instruction (MOI)|
|Rapid survey and interaction on the MOI|
|Findings and Recommendationsss|
The above theoretical frame is based on the applied linguistic dimension. For reviewing the HM’s perceptions, Rapid survey with tools of survey have been used and live interation with HM’s conducted. Basically, the discourse focused on the topic monolingual vs multilingual medium in the classroom. The HMs suggested for and against the monolingual and multilingual aspect which has presented next topics and discussed with the figure. After discussion on the subject, findings have drawn and recommendations as way forwards have been presented before conclusion.Though indepth research theory have not used in this study. There are various research theories for indepth study.Such as grounded theory, ethnography, Case study, phenomenology, experimental etc. are in practice.
6.Methodology of the Study
Purposive sampling method has been applied for this study and all of school headteachers have been taken as key informants. Survey form have filled up by them and taking notes interacting with HM’s when they expressed individually their openions and suggestions in the headteachers meeting. In total 39 headteachers participated this rapid survey whereas only two schools are private sectors, remaining 37 schoos are community schools.
In this study, qualitative and quantative study method are used with document study, survey form and face to face interaction have been used. First of all, all HM’s filled up survey questionnaire in 10 minute’s time span. Then, each of heacher participated in discussion with sharing their experience on the basis of school practice. I made note on my notebook which they mentioned their thinking and views on the topic.
- Sampling and Population
In this rapid survey, pusposive sampling method has been used and covered all of the HM’s from all the schools who engaged the HMs meeting which was called for discussion on the topic of contracting with HMs and teachers for enhancing learning achievement above 50% in every subject. It can be called census survey of the HM’s perpective on the medium of instruction in the classroom.
- Mixed study method
In this study, qualitative and quantative methods have applied and document study also used that means mixed method has applied for collecting data collection, tabulation, analysis and interpretation .
- Tools for the study
To meet the objective of this study, a rapid survey form developed and to make fill up all of HMs in 10 minutes time as a warm up before starting the HM’s meeting that day. And, taking note of HMs openions who expressed in the meeting what kinds of practices and what should be done forward in the context of quality education and medium of instruction of the classroom at schools . For reviewing the literature and discussion upon the finding, documents study method has been followed for theoretical base.
7.Limitation of this Study
This study covers the medium of instruction of the classroom at the schools in Mandandeupur municipality, kavre district . There are 46 schools in total with private and ECED classes also. And, this study has focused monolingual practice versus multilingual practices in the classroom at schools. Qualititative and quantative educational research methodology has applied in the study. Only 39 headteachers who participated face to face interation and filled up questionnaire as the key informants. As well as documents study method has been implemented for the literature review, analysis of datas and interpretation of the datas,.It’s only rapid survey typed study,which has strived to present recent status of MOI in the classroom. Furthermore, this study emphasize to find out the headteacher’s perception upon medium of instruction in the classroom which might be monolingual vs multilingual.
- Analysis and interpretation
In this chapter, I have analysis the context in different thematic topics. Maily those topics are related to purpose of this study which are status of the MOI in classroom, monolingual vs multilingual practice (English only versus mother tongue and others), English medium limits on subject Math and Science only and finding the applicable ways for medium of instruction in the classroom at schools.This study has focused to draw the implications for the fittest MOI in the classroom at schools.
In given subtopics, there has been tried to analysis and interpret the datas for finding out and to summing up for conclusion the study. There have been used numerical datas and datas showing in bars, pie charts and graphs. The further data presentation and interpretations are presented as follow:
Perspective of HM’s upon Medium of Instruction at School.
Accordance with above presented bar graph denotes English only and Mother tongue only 2.56%, Nepali and English both 2.56 % and English medium in Math and science subject 5.13% but multiligual education (mother tongue, Nepali and English) is the highest percent that covers 66.67. And 17.95 % are not clear on the subject for medium of classroom monolingual or multiligual .
Most importantly, it can be said that English only policy and practice at school classroom is not match perspectives of headteachers and student background of linguistic diversity. There is no concrete and scientific evidence to imply English medium for all students and on all subjects. But ground reality is quite different from the English only policy and practice. This offers the policy makers and practioners to rethink about the existing medium of instruction of school in Mandandeupur Municipality.
Others Status of HM’s perspective has presented in the given in the subtopics:
- Theme:HM’s pespectives of English/ Mother tonguage only as MOI.
In the above Bar chart, As a medium of instruction of the classroom English and mother tongue only is same as 2.56% . This data shows that only one language is medium of instruction is not rational for the diverse classroom. That fact is accepted by headteachers who participated on the discuss which is expressed orally and written form that day.
The HM-1: The given narrative of HM-1 explores only English language should be used for developing English skills. He is on the misconception about medium of instruction of classroom. His version clearly proves that he has mentioned context of English subject teaching. But his ideology of medium instruction hasn’t matched for MOI. His narration is present here:
Prohibit to use other langauges as medium of instruction without English.
- Theme:HM’s perpective of Multilignual education as MOI.
The above pie chart reflects that multilingual medium instruction in the classroom is the fact or ground reality of our classroom. Despite implementation of multilingual education, nowadays blindly imitating English medium at community schools. The assumption is the steps have taken to survive community school against private schools. This has raised unsolved question in the sector of education that what is the quality education and what are the quality measures indicators. Nepalese society misunderstand that obtaining high GPA and being able to speak English is quality education.There has been created dilemma that English meduim and private schools are brand of quality.
In the perspective of headteachers who covered nearly 67%, they have clear concept in the context medium of instruction. They expressed their opinion for the appropriate suggestion to policy makers to review the only English medium all of the community schools. Because of teacher compentency, students linguistic background, textbooks and language using environment in house, school and community are the determinants of the medium of education. Language can’t live without daily use in family, community and official provision. In the Nepalese context, children speak their own mother language at home, Nepali language speak at community and schools and they get chance to speak English when they learn English subject and whey they attempt English subject exam then they have to face English.
HM’s perspective of Multilingual education as MOI.
|HM-1: Multiligual education is useful for classroom
HM-2: Simultaneously local language or mother tongue with given priority English language as a medium
HM-3: Manage multiligual teacher and teach language teacher to teacher.
HM-4: Conduct multilingual classes.
HM-5: Making teacher self multiligual to teaching in the context of linguistic diversity.
HM-6: English only medium is not suitable but use multilingual with English also.
HM-7: Multilingual education is appropriate which makes student and orient being Nepali and multilingual Nepal.
HM-8: English Books makes student to low learning achievement due to medium language barrier and adopt mother tongue and English respectively.
HM-9: Use multiligual medium for easy comprehension in teaching learning process and Enlish language can be used simultaneously.
HM-10: Use multilingual medium in the classroom for comprehension and mother tongue should use for initial classrooms.
HM-11: Multilingual education is better for learning excellency in basic level.
HM-12: Without foundation of English medium, mother tongue based multilingual education is the best.
HM-13:Enhance competency of teacher in many languages.
HM-14: It’s better to emphasize use Nepali language than English only.
HM-15: Multilingual teaching and learning is the finest.
HM-16: Focus on multilingual education .
HM-17: Multiligual education is inevitable for educational excellence.
HM-19: Language isnot quality, MOI should be comprehensive for students and Enlish only in school is illegal.
HM-20: Medium language should be on the convenience of students which language they understand and express.
HM-21: Multilingul education is essential.
HM-22: Excellent book must be choosen for multilingual education.
HM-23: Monolingual medium is not matched multilingual classroom, so apply MTEB MLE for the multilingual classroom.
HM-24: Monolingual is not fit for all classroom, multilingual education is fruitful .
HM-25: Emphasize on multilingual education by all.
HM-26: Multilingua education should be applied, where the community is linguistically diverse.
The 26 narration of the headteachers, all of them accepted the multilingual medium of instruction at school classrooms. They are representing reality of students need, standard and language background. In the interaction, below 10 schools are implementing English medium, other are ‘applying bilingual and trilingual medium in classroom.Except these schools, remaining other nearly 30 schools are applying as medium of instruction more than one languages.
The headteachers who have suggested they focused on the development of children’s cognition level and they emphasized language for comprehension in the teaching learning process. They also opined that teacher should be multilingual because the classroom of Nepalese school are not monolingual.In the classroom, different social, economic and linguistically diverse children are representing the diversity of Nepal. Mostly ECED classroom and below three classes, class teachers are using mother tongue repectively Nepali language as a medium instruction.So, in this era of globalization, how to link local to global in the subject of discourse and articulating to practice.Translinguising is the global solution for medium of instruction around the world. So as, medium nepali classroom might be transligual. For example a teacher can teach tamang student cat means biralo in nepali and Tawar in tamang. And, around the world, there is MTEB MLE models have been developed for medium of instruction which is accepted by UNESCO.
- C) Theme: HM’ perspectives of English is only for Math and Science as MOI.
Some of headteacher’s suggested to limit English medium only Math and science subject.It means that there should be used Nepali and mother tongues as medium of instruction in other subjects. Ony 5.13% headteachers were stand for limiting the English medium only Math and Science subject.This reflects that in other subjects mother tongue based mulitilinugaul education is better in spite of only English medim for all of students in community schools.
These perpectives suggest that one alternative to initiate English medium limiting on Math and Science subjects for developing foundation, to prepare and addressing need of the students.The following graph suggests the sequencing of medium of instruction in the community school classes.
Limiting English medium in Math and science
- Findings and Discussion
Some major findings are presented in the following five points:
- The study proves that English only and Mother tongue only 2.56%, Nepali and English both 2.56 % and limiting English medium in Math and science subject 5.13% but multiligual education (mother tongue, Nepali and English) is the highest percent that covers 66.67. And 17.95 % are not clear on the subject for medium of classroom monolingual or multiligual .
- In the above bar chart, as a medium of instruction of the classroom English and mother tongue only are same as 2.56%.
- In the perspective of headteachers who covered nearly 67%, they are clear concept in the context medium of instruction.This means multilingual medium is the appropriate for the diverse classroom.
- Ony 5.13% headteachers were stand for limiting the English medium only Math and Science subject.
- And 17.95 % are not clear and on the dilemma on context of medium of classroom should be monolingual or multiligual.
10.The implications of the study.
This study has guidelined some implication that are given in the following points:
a.Firstly, This study refers multilingual medium for the classroom instruction is the only one best and proven implication.
b.Secondly, The study envisions English only and mother tongue only is not fit for multilingual classroom. English only and mother tongue only is not accepted, so medium of the classroom should make multilingual medium.
c.Thirdly, Accoding to findings of this study, English medium can be limited and to practise in Math and Science subject. This shows the way to confine English in only some subjects.
- Fourthy, Accordance with the study findings, Nepali and English both medium arenot sufficient for the linguistic diverse classroom. It’s necessary to use mother tongue with Nepali language as medium of instruction in the basic classes.
e.Fiftly,Regarding the perspective of the headteachers, there are more than 17% are misconception about monolingual and multilingual practice as a medium instruction. It refers that there need to raise awareness and demystify the misconception.
Some recommendations which based on the study are given follow:
- a) The students of the classroom’s are linguistically diverse background. The fist language is mother tongue like Tamang, Danuwar, Gurung, Majhi so on.The speak their mother tongue at home but the medium language of community schools is generally Nepali. They don’t understand the Nepali language in initial class of Basic Education. So, English is double language barrier for them.Therefore, this municipality should rethink and use multiligual medium in the classroom at schools.
- English only and Mother tongue only also hasn’t accepted in the regard of headteachers perception. This means Nepali only hasn’t accepted by them, in another sense it refers making multiligual medium of classrooms.
- To address the aspiration of using medium English language in teaching and learning process, it can be used in Math and Science subjects as a medium instruction.
- There is misconception about the multilingual education more than 17% percent who are headteachers. It means this kind of illiteracy in multigual education has wide coverage. In this way, It’s need to provide orientation policy makers, executives, teachers, guardian for making clear concept of all.
- English medium has been implemented from pre-primary level in the context of Nepal. Then gradually it starts class to futher classes like class 1, 2, 3 …….so on. This types of application of medium of language is not match with sequence of language using as medium of instruction. So, English medium can be applied higher class to lower class such as it can be embarked from class 8 to 11, 10, 9,8……………. etc.
In the context of Nepal, medium of instruction in the classroom is only Nepali and Enlgish only which have enforced by the previous constitution and acts which werenot democratic to get education in their mother language. Though after established the federal republic Nepal, constitutionally every child have ensured the rights to get education in their mother tongue There is gap between multilingual policy to practice from federal, provincial and local levels.
Local levels have to formulate local policies and acts sfor preserving and developing local languages. Although, local levels are making English medium only in the classroom all of community schools like Mandadeupur municipality.Whereas, headteachers perception is for the multilingual medium that represents the ground reality of the classroom and linguistic background of students. Most important fact is that our present need of the classroom is multilingual medium and have to replace monolinguism in the classroom by multilingualism or translinguaging.
Awasthi, Lava (2004). Exploring Monolingual School Practices in Mulitiligual Nepal. Ph.D. dissertation, Danish University of Education, Copenhagen. Denmark.
Kandel, Sadananda (2013). Language Choice and Use in Multilingual Context of Nepal: An Ethnographic Study. Unpublished Ph.D.dissertation. Jawaharlal University India.
Department of Education (2014). Assessment of the Status of Mother Tongue based Multilingual Education (MLE) Implementation as Medium of Instruction in Schools of Nepal. Sanothimi Bhaktapur.
Sheel, Amanda and others (2015).Medium of Instruction and Languages for Education (MILE): Ways Forward for Education Policy, Planning and Practice in Nepal. Ministry of Education and Austrilian Aid.
Phyak, Prem Bahadur (2016), For Our Chot: Lung: Decolonizing Language Ideologies and (Re) Imagining Multilingual Education Practices and Practice in Nepal. Ph.D.dissertation. University of Hawai, USA.
Fillmore, Naomi (2019).MTEB MLE Model Building Activity.Baseline survey Report. VSO Nepal and Language Commission.
Lopchan, Lok Bahadur (2019). Instructional Use of Tamang Language at School. Unpublished Ph.D.dissertation. Dean Office of Education Faculty, Kirtipur.
Lopchan, Lok (2019). A brief report of educational use of mother tongues.Language commission Kathmandu.
Pradhan, Uma (2020). Simultaneous Identities, Language Education and the Nepali Nation. Cambridge University Press. USA.
Perspectives of HM’s on the medium of education at schools: Mandandeurpur Municipality, kavrepalanchok
|S.N.||Informants||Position||Medium of instruction
|1||HM-1||HM||professional support for teacher and support for classroom.
Enabling SMC and PTA memebers.
Equipped HM with authority and resource.
|2||HM-2||HM||Simultaneoly local language with priority English.|
|३||HM-3||HM||Monitor every school every month minimum one time.
To orient guardian for regularity of students.
To make accoutable teacher own’s duty.
|Train teacher and develop practical skill to students.|
|4||HM-4||HM||Multilingual teacher manage
learning language from teacher to teacher.
|5||HM-5||HM||Manage MGML classes where teacher is less than classroom.|
|7||HM-8||Make teacher self multilingual.|
|8||HM-9||HM||Prohibit other languages for English subjece.|
|9||HM-10||Ass. HM||English only is not suitable.
Follow multilingual with English.
|10||HM-11||HM||Multilingual education is appropriage
which make student practical and complete.
Orient for being multilingual Nepal and Nepali.
|11||HM-12||HM||English books make students to low achievement.
To remove medium language barriers,
use both mother langauge and MLE.
|12||HM-1||HM||To easy comprehension use multilingual medium and simultaneously use English language as medium of instruction.|
|13||HM-1||HM||Use multilingual medium classroom.
Apply mother tongue for easy comprehension.
|14||HM-1||HM||Provide subjectwise training.|
|15||HM-1||HM||Multilingual education is fine for educational excellence.|
|16||HM-1||HM||English medium without foundation,
beest medium of instruction is multilingual.
|17||HM-1||HM||Enhance compentency of teacher more languages.|
|18||HM-1||HM||It’s better to emphasize Nepali language as medium of instruction than English.|
|19||HM-1||HM||Multilingual teaching and learning is the finest.|
|20||HM-1||HH||Focus multilingual education.|
|21||HM-1||HM||Multilingual education is useful for excellence education.|
|22||HM-1||HM||Multiligual medium is right approach.|
|23||HM-1||HM||Make effective English medium in Math, science and
multilingual for others.
|24||HM-1||HM||Language is not quality,
MOI should be comprehensive for developing cognition of students.
English only is illegal.
|25||HM-1||HM||Only English medium not appropriate.|
|27||HM-1||HM||Apply convenience language for medium of instruction which student understand.|
|30||HM-1||HM||Excellent book choosing for multilingual education by subject teacher.|
|31||HM-1||HM||Monolinugaulism in the classroom is not mactched in the Multiligual classroom.
MTBMLE is useful for multilingual classroom.
|32||HM-1||HM||Not fit monolingual, multilingual is better and
English medium limited for Science and Math subject.
|33||HM-1||HM||Difficulty to improve only English medium.
Comparatively multiligual medium might be fruitful.
|35||HM-35||HM||Emphasize multilingual education|
|36||HM-36||HM||Expert teacher and use appropriate textmaterials.|
|37||HM-37||HM||Multilingual medium for any specific language community and English medium for other situation.|
|38||HM-38||HM||Use bilingual medium Nepali and English.|
|39||HM-39||HM||Equal treat for every subject .|